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O trhání a trhu: úvěrová teorie společenské monetizace jako výkladové schéma etymologické souvislosti mezi trháním a pojmenováním směny

Jan Kratochvíl

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On tearing and markets: credit theory of social monetization as an interpretative scheme for the etymological connection between the Slavic word for ‘a tearing’ and the Slavic word for ‘market’

The article reconstructs the meaning connection between the word *tъrgati (‘to tear’), which is supposed to be of Proto-Slavic origin, and *tъrgъ (‘a market’), whose origin is unknown. It briefly summarizes our knowledge about using cloth as a specific Slavic currency and about its influence on shaping the meaning of words connected with the exchange of economic products. Then the article introduces the hypothesis about the meanings of *tъrgati (‘to tear’) and *tъrgъ (‘a market’, but also ‘a rip’) being connected through the debt theory of monetization. According to the hypothesis explained in the article, the Slavic cloth functioned on the same principle as tally sticks. The number of rips in a cloth indicated the amount of debt in the same way as the number of notches on a tally stick did. This practice is argued to be reflected in the language. The article also criticizes other hypotheses, which consider the word *tъrgъ to be of Mediterranean or Turkic origin.

Key words: cloth, debt, market, Slavic currency in the 10th century, to tear
Klíčová slova: dluh, plátno, slovanské platidlo v 10. století, trh, trhat

Text je on-line k dispozici v databázi CEEOL.

Pracoviště historické sociologie FHS UK
U Kříže 8, 158 00 Praha 5 – Jinonice
<jan.kr@centrum.cz>

Naše řeč, ročník 103 (2020), číslo 3

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